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The physics of model scaling make it impossible to perfectly convert between model scale and ship scale. Learn how to get around the scaling correlation problem and convert from model scale to ship scale measurements.
Time for an upgrade! Far beyond the single purpose testing facility, the modern towing tank expanded into a Swiss Army knife of experiments. Armed with new gadgets and advanced capabilities. Time to see what new tricks the tank holds for us!
It may look like a swimming pool, but towing tanks exist for a different purpose. Dragging models down the tank propelled the science of ship design forward across the years. These pools deliver critical measurements for ship hydrodynamics. Discover why we pay such a high price for a fundamental tool of ship design.
In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we often need to model scenarios that involve more than one fluid. Volume of fluid modeling (VOF) expands the capabilities of CFD to allow limitless combinations of different fluids. The world of VOF encompasses everything from droplets of diesel spraying in cylinder all the way up to tsunami waves crashing against the city of Tokyo. How does VOF achieve this, and what are the implications for CFD modeling?
Mesh deformation is incredibly frustrating, complicated, unstable . . . and unavoidable if you want to incorporate body motions into CFD. Modeling body motion demands mesh deformation, changing the mesh on the fly, while using it to solve transport equations. As you might expect, that brings a host of new challenges. This reviews several new strategies that the CFD engineers needs to consider.
When we add the time domain, simulations change from modeling steady scenarios to unsteady, where boundary conditions change over time. Beyond the physics, modeling unsteady flow requires a few changes to the CFD solver. Inner iterations, timestep, Courant Number, and data management all enter into the strategy for the CFD engineer. Today we discuss each of these.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can model multiple fluids with the volume of fluid method. (VOF) The volume of fluid method opens new horizons for advanced modeling, which requires additional planning from the CFD engineer. Dive into the boundary conditions, meshing strategy, stability concerns, and more. Discover the world of VOF modeling.
Turbulence demands modeling just like any other equation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As the CFD engineer, you need to describe boundary conditions for your turbulence equations. This article describes how to define boundary conditions for turbulence and provides typical values for normal simulations.
Ready or not, here it comes! No matter who you talk to, IMO 2020 promises to be a time of uncertain fuel prices. If fuel prices will go up, your fuel consumption needs to go down. Here are eight practical ways to reduce your fuel consumption.
Turbulence does tricky things near walls. Boundary layers and laminar sublayers compact interesting flow patterns into a very small space. Small it may be, but experience proved we cannot ignore it. The boundary layer forms on the body, which is our object of interest, arguably the most critical region. Turbulence is most critical near the wall, and we need to consider near wall effects.
How we address turbulence is the defining feature of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD). No modern computer has the power to directly compute the full details of turbulence (as of 2019). Instead, we make approximations and develop empirical models. What type of approximation, and which models should you select?
The heart of any CFD program is an extremely efficient linear algebra solver. But CFD equations are non-linear. How do we stretch the limits of linear algebra to accommodate non-linear CFD equations? How do we take the mathematics from one cell and apply them to millions of cells?
What makes a waterjet work? What is the difference between a good and bad waterjet? Waterjets may appear to be brutes of power, but they rely on delicately balanced design equations. Learn the common elements that go into all waterjets and discover the best practices that you should expect from any decent waterjet design.
CFD convergence is not an exact science. The CFD engineer relies on three tools to judge when a simulation finishes: monitors, flow patterns, and residuals. But none of these tools work 100% of the time. The well-trained engineer understands how to use these tools and how to combine them into a cohesive picture and reliably judge a converged CFD simulation.
The core of all calculus problems require us to consider something infinitely small. Ask a computer to ponder the concept of infinity and watch its circuits fry. If we want to solve the equations of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we need a way to fake calculus. This impacts the stability, the mesh quality, and the ultimate simulation quality. Enter interpolation equations.
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